At this point, its reasonably common knowledge that terroir isn’t all about soil. Studies since the 1970’s have told us that wine from grapes grown on different soil types in different locations don’t necessary taste different. Nouveau chic wine critics – Steve Heimoff, Eric Asimov, W. Blake Gray, among others – have announced that they don’t really buy the terroir thing, that they can’t taste the differences they’re supposed to taste between one side of a hill and the other. [Mr. Asimov has questioned the use of “terroir” to describe a scientifically measurable difference in minerals from the earth, but acknowledges the existence and importance of terroir, describing it as “the interaction of the vineyard, the climate and the people who made the wine.” -Ed.] But a lot of us (accusatory finger pointing straight at myself) still feel as though we can indeed taste a difference in wine from vineyards full of galets (big, white, French cobblestones) versus an alluvial plain. To make things more complicated, terroir often carries the weight of much politicking, perhaps because place carries so much value in wine marketing (if place doesn’t influence flavor, then why are we paying more for the ritzy neighborhoods?) or perhaps because wine lovers will happily create vitriol wherever differences of opinion allow.


The foremost question to answer is whether we can taste terroir – or, perhaps even more importantly, whether we can convince anyone and ourselves that we can taste terroir. But the other obvious question is whether we can attribute to terroir a measurable chemical difference between wines grown in different places. Which is more important – that a chemical difference exists or that we perceive a difference – is a philosophical question and one on which I’ve yet to decide my own position. But life rarely waits for philosophical questions, and a lot of business rests on terroir being real. Recent debates have left plenty of wine lovers questioning whether it really is. At this point, evidence – any evidence – conclusively proving one stance or the other is exactly what we all need. And, thank goodness, there are scientists working on that.

I’d love to be able to say that the data from recent studies on terroir are easy to understand. I’d love to be able to say that, once the answers contained therein trickle down to The People, the winners will hold their data high and the losers will grumble until they finally come around. Unfortunately, its never that simple.

Defining terroir is the first problem. The most important thing to say about terroir is that terroir isn’t just soil. Peynaud very elegantly defined terroir as “Mother Nature,” which gives a useful general idea but isn’t very helpful for a scientific research study. A working definition developed by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) in 2005 talks about terroir as a concept that involves the interaction between human culture and knowledge and the natural environment, which means that terroir includes how we’ve decided over centuries what cultivars to plant where and other ways humans have adapted to nature. This definition is interesting, but still much too big to be useful for a research study. So, some studies try to deal with all of the different factors related to differences in place simply by comparing grapes grown in different regions. Others pick out specific elements related to place – type of soil, amount of sunlight or water, even local yeasts and bacteria – in an effort to not just say that grapes grown in different places are different, but to ascertain why they’re different.

Terroir isn’t just about soil by nearly everyone’s measure (those who think it is just about soil are plain misguided), but geology is still one of the more frequent elements of terroir that scientists choose to single out for dissection. Even still, geology isn’t just about rocks. What about how the shapes of landforms – topography – affect how wind blows and mesoclimates: which vineyards are a little warmer and which are a little cooler? Or how well the soil holds on to water? A major but frequently overlooked element of vineyard geology is how the assorted soil types make minerals available in different ways, since grapevines rely on the soil to provide about 19 inorganic nutrients. Clay, for instance, holds on to minerals and transfers them to roots exceptionally well, while soils based on granite are notoriously bad.

There are plenty of problems with trying to draw conclusions about wine flavor from these sorts of various vineyard qualities. One of the more celebrated elements of terroir­ – the way the soil looks at the surface – is important partially in terms of heat radiation, because whether the soil is dark- or light-colored, reflective or shiny (like those famous galets of Chateauneuf-du-Pape) influences how warm the soil gets, which influences ripening. But allowing native vegetation to grow, planting cover crops, or applying mulch – techniques that are all the rage these days – mitigate that influence. So, ironically enough, biodynamic farmers who employ these tendencies might be reducing the influence of their local terroir rather than increasing it as they generally advertise. And those great maps that show how (particularly French) vineyards correspond to different bits of bedrock rarely account for topography, which is huge both in terms of what layer of soil vines are interacting with and which direction a slope is facing. In other words, the maps aren’t nearly as useful a tool for explaining flavors as they initially seem to be.

These are thought-experiment arguments backed by solid scientific theory. When we look at studies measuring chemical compounds or quantifying flavors, we have different problems. Mostly, nothing is as clear-cut as we’d like it to be. A 2012 study trying to distinguish wines from three different subregions of Rioja using nuclear magnetic resonance was able to distinguish grapes from those three regions, barely, but couldn’t do the same with the finished wine. A 2004 study in Bordeaux found that, while the majority of variation in grape ripeness (measured by sugar content) could be attributed to grape cultivar, what soil type the vines were grown in was a pretty close second. But soil type had nearly no effect on grape pH and acid content. Huh.

Benzyl mercaptan, possibly responsible for the “gunflint” wine aroma

The concentration of some key minerals – nitrogen, potassium, magnesium – depended on soil type but the amount of those minerals in the soil didn’t correspond to the amount of those minerals the vines took up, nor to how much of those minerals showed up in the ripened grapes. This is crucial: minerals from the soil don’t translate to minerals in the wine, and certainly not to mineral aromas and flavors. Nutrients taken up by vine roots aren’t evenly distributed throughout the plant, so concentrations measured in a leaf petiole (the tiny stem that holds onto an individual leaf where a lot of measurements are taken) will be different than concentrations measured in the woody part of the vine or in the grapes. Moreover, yeasts absorb some of these nutrients, which means that those nutrients are taken out of the wine when the yeast is fined or filtered out in the form of lees, so the concentration of minerals in a finished wine bears is even less related to the minerals in the soil than the concentration in the grapes was. Finally, we’re pretty sure that we can’t taste the tiny smidgens of minerals that do end up in the wine. Most of the minerals found in wine are always present in quantities below their detection threshold, that is, in smaller quantities than anyone can taste. The few exceptions – iron, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate – taste pretty icky – bitter or “off” – rather than like what we usually call minerality.

There are the studies showing that we can in fact show statistically significant differences between wines from different areas but these, too, have problems. For example, a 2012 study took a detailed look at the flavors in Cabernet Sauvignon from ten distinct geographical areas in Australia and detected statistically significant differences identifying each wine. But they weren’t able to control for different winemaking practices, so how can we tell how those differences came about? Now, if we take that broad INRA definition of terroir to include winemaking styles attached to a region, I suppose we can still prove something about terroir here, but I don’t think that’s what most of us mean when we ask these sorts of questions.

Now, it’s very possible that there are things going on here that we don’t yet understand – that we can’t measure or explain – that help explain how terroir manufacturers flavor. Maybe we’re not choosing the right wines, or we’re not looking at the right variables, or maybe we’re not yet even capable of detecting whatever it is causing the differences we (sometimes) taste. There might be a very good argument for the idea that terroir comes from centuries of vintners’ accumulated knowledge about where to plant what vines, a big problem when many studies of terroir are being conducted in regions like Australia or Ontario where winemaking doesn’t have a very long history. None of these studies proves anything about terroir. They can only point us in the direction of what isn’t happening.

I was recently sent a few very pleasant bottles of Assyrtiko from Santorini. The Wines from Santorini marketing website suggested that the wines should have “a pleasing mineral character derived from the volcanic soil it is grown in.” And both of the wines did, indeed, taste strongly minerally and a bit salty. I enjoyed that, and I enjoyed thinking about those sea breeze-swept vines growing in their crusty volcanic soil. But whether the flavors I enjoyed had anything to do with those breezes and that soil, or where those flavors came from? I’m pretty sure they didn’t.


About The Author

Science Writer

Erika Szymanski studies wine science dissemination at the Centre for Science Communication at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. She holds Masters degrees in both microbiology and English rhetoric and composition and wants, someday, to help improve the structures through which scientists communicate with each other, industry, and the world. Erika was named 2012 Louis Roederer Emerging Wine Writer of the Year for her work on Palate Press.

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17 Responses

  1. Eric Asimov

    I’m not sure why Erika Szymanski cites me as somebody who doesn’t believe that good wine expresses terroir. Of course I believe it.

    • Erika Szymanski

      Eric, forgive me if I appeared to misrepresent your views. Some of what you’ve written for the NY Times and Diner’s Column (including the linked above) suggest that you have doubts about terroir-related claims.

      • Eric Asimov

        Forgive me, Erika, I cannot find the link.

  2. gabe

    why does it have to be so black and white? can we say that terroir affects the way a wine tastes, and so does winemaking? personally, i believe marketing actually effects the way we experience a wine as well

  3. Fabio (Vinos Ambiz)

    my 2c worth is this: I think it’s rather unfruitful to restrict the definition of terroir to the analytic, scientific identification of some chemical or molecule. Any useful meaningful definition of terrior ought to be much wider, and include not only geology and climate, like this article focuses on, but a host of other factors too; like the grape variety, the grapegrowing technique(s), the winemaking technique(s), and social and cultural factors too. I think the social, cultural, and abstract components of terroir are in fact even more important than the scientifically analyzable components. Otherwise, how do we explain that so much more is known about the terroir of say Burgundy or Chianti, than is known about the terroir of say Armenia, Greece, or Georgia, where wine has been made for much much longer than in Burgundy/Chianti/etc? Because people have been talking about it and creating a literature about it for hundreds of years; whereas the new world and many parts of the olde worlde lack this literature and accumulated abstract cultural knowledge, though they obviously don’t lack a geology or a climate!

  4. Meg Houston Maker

    Perhaps soil is to terroir as oil paint is to genre; the finished expression depends upon many factors, from pigment to painter, technique to tradition, bias to Zeitgeist. It does seem evident that our drive to define terroir arises from an urge to make sense of complexity. Multivariate analysis is always a worthy, if challenging, project.

  5. Larry Brooks

    This is a thoughtful essay that you have posted. I would suggest that you take a look at the work of Andrea Bauer and her team of scientists working for the last 10 years or so in Germany. They have conclusively proven that soil is the key factor in aromatic expression (flavor), and that soil type trumps both region and winemaking. I have read in this literature extensively since the mid 90s when the first good science was published on terroir. It appears that in red wine seasonality and winemaking tend to overcome or mask terroir. The scientific evidence for it in white wines is solid at this point

  6. Dan Barwick

    This topic will never cease to intrigue those of us who are fascinated by the subtle differences in wines character from through out different places in the world. If there were not some influence from site,’terroir’, would not everything taste far more similar?
    In 2008 many Northern California wines, took on nuances of smokiness which was associated with the wild fires that ravaged Mendocino and Lake counties during the summer of that year; this charcter was not caused by smoke settling on the clusters, but by the leaves absorbing the oils, and chemicals from the atmosphere and somehow imprinting this anomoly into the finished wine. The amount of smokiness varied significantly from vineyard to vineyard, and from one varietal to another, with the evidence that vineyards going through veraison during that period showed greater levels of smokiness in the wine that they produced than those that were not. The net result of this is that vines can absorb their environment, which, depending on your point of view, can only prove that there is some serious credibility in that ‘terroir’, or a wines environment can be expressed in a finished wine.

    • Tom Mansell
      Tom Mansell

      Smoke taint and eucalyptus taint are examples of aroma compounds migrating into the wax bloom from the environment, but they are the only proven examples of this phenomenon that I know of. If a winery has a bunch of lavender and tries to say lavender shows up in the wine… I’d be skeptical.

      • Fabio (Vinos Ambiz)

        I would also be skeptical! My Airén vineyard is surrounded by acres of wild thyme (which even invades the vineyard itself) and never has anyone perceived even a hint of thyme in the wine!

  7. Tony

    It’s pretty obvious, I’d have thought, that location affects how vines grow, how fruit develops and hence how wines taste. In that sense I’m a “terroirist”. Like many others, my concept of location includes not simply soil type but numerous other variables both “natural” (e.g. topography, climate) and “cultural” (e.g. fertilizer, irrigation and pruning practises).

    Unfortunately, there has been a tendency in some circles to be reductive, and to attribute wine differences to a single variable such as geology. Once they become common currency, such errors can be surprisingly difficult to eliminate. For example, a knowledge of cognac crus still resides on the WSET diploma syllabus. Even many ardent terroirists find it difficult to envisage how location is able to shine through the fermented juice of Ugni Blanc after it has been distilled twice. French geologist Henri Coquand probably proposed the Cognac crus as a hoax (Huggett, 2005) and would no doubt be amazed to find them still in use.

  8. Kevin Pogue

    Terroir is the SUM of all of the factors that make a vineyard site unique (e.g. climate, soil, geomorphology, geography). Doubting terroir is the same as doubting vintage variation, and who would claim that vintage variation does not exist? Vintage variation results from variations in climate such as average growing season temperatures, growing degree-days, precipitation, number of cloudy days, etc, etc. The characteristics of soils, particularly their hydrologic and thermal properties, influence the degree of vintage variation at a particular site. Soils that warm quickly or are better drained may make better wine in a cool or wet year. Climate varies from site to site as well as from year to year. So obviously if there is recognizable vintage variation in wine, there must be recognizable site variation in wine (terroir) that is controlled by both climate and soil.

  9. Charles Rivet

    I’ve been reading a lot lately about terroir and your articles is certainly a good summary.
    Personally, I tend to believe that terroir (or “somewherness” as I’ve also heard it called) is a combination of geographical location, soil, weather, and human interaction. And yes, I do believe that those combination do cause wine to be (sometimes ever so slightly) different. However, I also believe that different combinations can still cause two wines that are separated by great distance to be very close in taste (some Ontario wines can be close to what is done in Burgundy, for example).
    The best example I can think of is tasting, quite a few years ago, a Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot blend from Ontario (Prince Edward County) once and finding a hint of maple in the finish. I thought it was very interesting and I brought it up with the winery…and it turns out that a maple grove had been cleared to make way for the vines – something I had _not_ known in advance. Fluke? Maybe. But it did convince me that, perhaps, there is something to terroir.