Stanford linguistic professor Dr. Dan Jurafsky’s recent book on The Language of Food: A Linguist Reads the Menu includes a perspicacious observation about high-class versus budget restaurant menus. Explicit adjectives about yumminess are pretty much the sole purview of the bottom lot. Red Lobster will offer you flaky cod fillets hand-dipped in real beer batter and fresh garden salad with vine-ripened tomatoes; RN74 or Ottolenghi likely lists just cod, tomatoes. We’ll safely assume that the beer in the batter is real, the salad fresh, and if the fillets aren’t hand-dipped it’s because they’ve devised some ingenious machine that does the job better. Extra adjectives are filler words – you say “delicious, crispy chicken” when you can’t name heritage breed and provenance – but they’re also a reassurance that disconcertingly points toward the potential for doubt. The phrase “made with real butter,” after all, only emerged after margarine became popular.

So what to think when a label’s back half boasts hand-picked or hand-harvested grapes? Should we be suspicious of machine-harvesting, and is machine-harvesting bad? Surely that’s the implication, or why would anyone brag about it? The vast majority of wine is made from machine-harvested grapes. Great: it keeps the price down on the $8 chardonnays that no one expects to be hand-crafted. But even if some of us do more or less regularly drink mass-produced industrial wines, we all know that hand-craftsmanship is best.

Except when it’s not. Sometimes sacrificing uniqueness to consistent uniformity is no sacrifice at all; if wine bottles were still hand-blown, they’d leak a lot more and screwcaps wouldn’t be an option. They might have attractive personal touches, but we’d also be paying a lot more for the privilege. (Though I’d best stop thinking along this line before I argue that a hand-blown glass standard would mean status-quo bottle refilling and less frivolous waste and a better world for us all, which is an interesting point about mechanization for a different day.)

Scioppettino harvestMachine harvesting’s inferred inferiority is far from a given, more often marketing than meaningful difference. Winemaking is always about control. Machine harvesting affords more of some kinds of control than hand-picking and so can be an acceptable substitute for and even preferable over traditional handwork. Machines are, moreover, less expensive than manpower and being pretentious about that point is pointless; even strictly quality-focused producers can turn savings in one area into an expenditure with a bigger quality payout elsewhere or, heck, a lower bottle price.

Machine harvesting means beating up the vines. Beater bars either jostle through the vine canopy or thwack the trunks, in either case shaking ripe clusters off branches onto collecting trays. En route to collecting gondolas, various increasingly fancy fans and sorters eliminate leaves, stems, and other Material Other than Grapes (MOG) so that, in the ideal scenario, the truck ends up resembling a bowl of blueberries: whole, single grapes. More commonly all of that thwacking splits open some fruit, but suffice it to say that these machines have become much better since their advent in the 1960’s when you could fairly say that they doubled as juicers. (Incidentally, an earlier model that substituted a cutter bar for the thwacking debuted in 1954, but didn’t last because it required hand-positioning individual clusters before harvest so that they could be cut in the correct spot). The operation is less thuggish than it sounds: because the beater bars – “bow bars,” actually – don’t remove the fruit by brute force but by some precisely calculated physics of quick movements in opposing directions to release more or less only ripe fruit, the vines don’t take as much of a thrashing as you might think.

Photo credit  Les Vins Georges Duboeuf

Photo: Les Vins Georges Duboeuf

The control mechanical harvesters lack is in deciding what to pick. They can’t, much. Adjusting the parameters on those beater bars – height, speed, oscillations – helps, but the machine can’t choose only perfect ripe clusters and leave a second crop or moldy grapes behind the way a trained team can. Whole cluster fermentation is also out. On the other hand, the harvester itself weeds out a lot of the non-grape matter that would otherwise warrant a pass through a sorting table, destemmer, or both. Eliminating those steps saves not only money and fuss but time, moving grapes to fermentation faster.

Speed ends up being one of mechanical harvesting’s best qualities. The machine option gives a winemaker more control over when to pick: deciding to harvest means calling one driver instead of mobilizing an entire crew, and machines generally move faster. Combine that with the ability to harvest at night – without bright lights, or keeping everyone up and paying them extra – and winemakers can bring fruit in precisely when they want and get it to the fermentation tanks in quick order. That precision demonstrably pays off with Marlborough sauvignon blanc. Research in 2011 concluded that machine-harvested “savvy” grapes actually make better wine, so long as your definition of better means more of that intense tropical fruit flavor that, if you’re dealing Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc, is probably precisely what you’re going for. Machine harvesting in this case meant less juice oxidation and consequently higher concentrations of the specific thiol molecules, destroyed by oxygen, responsible for that characteristic passionfruit flavor in the finished wines.

Older studies showed, even back in 1980 with harvesters much less sophisticated than present-day models, that machine-harvesting itself wasn’t better or worse than hand-picking. Harvest-related quality differences were all about temperature and how long the fruit had to sit before processing; when machines harvest cold fruit at night and move it quickly to a nearby winery they were the better option, not so in other cases. In 1980, then again, mechanical harvesters crushed fruit, didn’t sort out MOG as tidily, and delivered a soup that could easily deliver unwanted flavors if left to sit for very long. Some of our anti-mechanization prejudices are a hold-over from those days.

And some exceptions still stand. Delicate old vines can’t stand beater bars. Finer pinot noirs, perhaps, can’t stand even minor fruit crushing in the vineyard without extracting unwanted phenolics. Nonetheless, proud proclamations about hand-harvesting are mostly preying on our cultural assumptions about the natural superiority of people over machines. Labor shortages or no, wine is bound (hide-bound, maybe) to be a hold-out of that sentiment even as we become more globally accepting of robots in their various people-replacing roles. Until and unless our feelings about wine as a craft or even artisan product change, redefining the guy in charge as the wine artistic director instead of the winemaker per se, we’ll keep up at least the conceit of bowing to the hands-on winemaking pedestal.

But that change is already happening, sort of, and here we return to the linguistics of menus. At McDonalds, you know that your burger was machine-extruded and you don’t care. You’re at McDonalds for reasons that have nothing to do with hand-craftsmanship. At the neighborhood steak house – the one with the candles on the table where you took your current beau or belle on Friday night – you do care that your hamburger was hand-formed. But if you dine at Per Se and are offered a hamburger, you wouldn’t be surprised (or at least, let’s say, no more surprised than you are by anything that happens on your plate at Per Se) to learn that it had been machine-extruded to achieve a precisely controlled result that, in this singular case, created a better product. The comparison is imperfect – hand-formed burgers really are better in nearly every case – but the point stands. When machines are employed in the service of deliberate precision, they need not be a second-best. “Hand-harvested” is about our expectations and the message we’re trying to send; we’re choosing “my wine is an artisan product” over “my wine is a packaged food like any other packaged food” or “my wine is a way to get sloshed.” If that suits your purposes, splendid. But if anyone asks, the difference is usually more about the chemistry in your brain than in your glass.

About The Author

Science Writer

Erika Szymanski studies wine science dissemination at the Centre for Science Communication at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. She holds Masters degrees in both microbiology and English rhetoric and composition and wants, someday, to help improve the structures through which scientists communicate with each other, industry, and the world. Erika was named 2012 Louis Roederer Emerging Wine Writer of the Year for her work on Palate Press.

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18 Responses

  1. Dan Iness

    Have you ever seen machine harvested grapes, complete with mice swimming, gloves, empty beer cans, sprinkler heads, and filthy bird nests, etc.? I have.
    I invite you to come and see hand harvested grapes, that could pass as table grapes bound for market.

    • Tom V

      I find your statement a tad tough to envision. I don’t suppose you could back up your assertions with photographic evidence by chance?

  2. Devo

    Machine Harvesters shake berries off of the rachis , not “Beater bars either jostle through the vine canopy or thwack the trunks, in either case shaking ripe clusters off branches onto collecting trays.” These exposed individual berries swimming in a pool of juice make for less than ideal starting blocks for great wine. Not a big deal if you process the fruit quickly, but a really big deal if it sits for half a day or more in swimming pool sized gondolas in the hot sun.
    Point taken about machine harvest doesn’t necessitate poor quality. Especially with the amount of “mini harvester” like fad destermmers such as pellencs. However, pound for pound the quality is poor. A lack of labor is a lack of labor. Don’t dress it up.

    • szymanskiea

      Devo, you’re absolutely right that that sentence should read “berries” and not “clusters.” My carelessness. I don’t agree with you about “pound for pound the quality is poor,” however, as I’ve outlined, and I’m not trying to “dress up” anything. I’d want to ask wine economist Mike Veseth for the details, but I think this is more about cost efficiency than labor shortage per se. Just because we can do something less expensively with no noticeable quality difference doesn’t necessarily mean that we should, but it does mean that “hand-harvested” on a label doesn’t mean “this wine is better.”

  3. bakan

    Once, a friend washed one ton of hand picked Chardonnay and let the stuff dry for 3 days finding about 30 lb (13.5 kilos) of dirt, leaves, bird poop, insects, eggs, wood, petioles, etc.
    Another friend put some grapevine petioles and leaves into a container of water, kept it at 70F for 5 days and gave everybody a taste of the water…not very tasty!

  4. slowboat2

    This is a debate to go on forever, or until robots are banished from all assembly lines and people want to ,or will, pay what hand labor costs. When I was young and lived on a farm, the corn was mechanically harvested and and yes there were still ears of corn left on the ground. But, harvesters were improved and it was still cheaper. Let’s try an experiment-do a blind tasting on mechanical harvesters vs hand picked. Also, grape harvesters can do other vineyard tasks during the year that save on some labor costs. Or, California could pass a law that grapes can only be picked by hand and vineyards pay what it takes to get labor to pick them. Stranger things have been legislated.
    I am told by a vineyard owner that hand picked grapes are 100% more expenisve to get to the winery than mechanical harvesting. Let the “stupid public”, to quote a famous obamacare planner, decide what they want and like and at what price. That way everyone wins.

  5. Per-BKWine

    I admit I was a little bit disappointed. It is a subject that is shrouded in so many prejudices and misinformation so it certainly does merit a good investigation. I agree with the conclusion, that the benefit of hand harvest is mainly in the mind of the person who open the bottle. Or rather, that the answer is: it depends.

    But it would have been nice to investigate a bit more the arguments, or let’s say the advantages and drawbacks of each method. (And referring to an 80s report is, I guess, more of a curiosity. Like judging today’s cars by T-Ford standards.)

    Mechanical harvesters can actually pick better fruit than manual harvest. It depends on how the machine harvest is done and on how the manual harvest is done. For example, many pickers are paid by the kilo (or pound). They are not very likely to be very stringent in the selection… You are very likely to see snails, branches and leaves in that too. Modern machines are not very rough on the vines and can have all sorts of add-ons that improves the quality. At least that is what many winemakers say. And machines can also operate in a way that gives better quality than people in some contexts (e.g. at night or covering large areas when time presses).

    And vice-versa, manual harvest can be better, but again, only under certain conditions.

    What is quite certain, though, is that he who said “I can tell from the taste of the wine if the harvest was manual or mechanical” (a real-life quote) is certainly wrong.

    • Julián Panadés

      In a warm wine region like Spain and
      many others, machine harvesting requires to lay sulfites on the bottom of the trailer
      before they dump the load of grape, once is full another lay of sulfites to
      make sure the fermentation does not start on the ride back to the winery (could
      be hours) sometimes we have to harvest at more than 30 degrees at 7 in the

      Also think that machine harvesters
      are not harvesters are vacuum cleaners…they vacuum the grape and they rip it
      off from the stem…stem remains on the plant…snails and all type of small
      animals and insects that are slower than the machine they also go in…do not forget
      about grape in bad state or already rotten which their only job is to get rotten
      the healthy grape ASAP…they only way to stop the rest of grape to get rotten is
      with more sulfites.

      Sulfite is the master of headache and

      Organic or not organic wines is not
      very important now on days, it is only important for people that are not
      farmers and do not know about wine, remember that 99% of people that drink wine
      do not know about wine, this is why wine is a good business…

      What is really important is the amount
      of sulfites that “human” adds to the wine…

      To add the minimum amount of sulfites
      (sulfite is an antiseptic during fermentation) grape needs to be handpicked…this
      way we see what we pick and we only bring to fermentation what is the best after
      the second selection as soon as grape comes out in one piece after destemming
      them.. See this quick vid

      The amount of sulfites that this fermentation
      needs after this double selection (vineyard and selection table) is very very
      very little compared to the machine harvested grape/juice that goes to fermentation
      after vacuuming the grape from the fields and after travelling with juice in
      the heat.

      If you like to drink wine every day I
      would recommend to drink handpicked wines (only 14% of the wines of the world
      are) only because of the low amount of sulfites that have, which is impossible
      to have when is picked with a machine.

  6. Jeff_R_B

    There is a very large point here that is being ignored. Many of the best wines of the world, the ones synonymous with hand-harvesting, come from vineyard terrains that are simply impossible to machine pick. Whether that’s due to vine density or simple degree of slope, this discussion only applies to relatively flat terrain and lower vine density. I’ve worked with both, and to suggest there is no difference is simply unrealistic. Yes, there are variables involved, including the skill of the pickers, but a conscientious hand-harvesting program can bring in absolutely pristine fruit, fruit so clean that it can go whole cluster and direct to tank. That’s not something possible with machine harvesters. If, in the end, a winery uses hand-harvesting as a marketing gimmick and nothing more, can you say that the amount of increased bottles sold because of this statement somehow covers the massive premium hand-harvesting requires over machine harvesting?